Physical development is an area where toddlers show a huge range of abilities. All children are developing in their own unique pattern but by the age of 2 most toddlers have learnt to stand on their two feet, walk forwards and backward, jump run and climb. Keep in mind that your toddler will still have troubles turning and stopping so don’t let him run too far from supervision.
Physical development includes outdoor play but it is more than just running, kicking and throwing. As parents look for games which encourage a range of movements and help build strength, coordination and balance.
Many parents who work worry they do not have enough time to play with their toddlers. A lack of time or equipment can leave parents feeling as if their child is missing out. Play doesn’t need to involve expensive equipment and physical development can be incorporated into many everyday tasks. Toddlers lose interest in activities quickly so keeping activities short but regular is perfect for toddler development.
Parents who live in apartments may be concerned about their child’s access to space for physical development. Trips to the local park are important but by being creative the home environment can be equally stimulating. While hanging the washing, grab the washing basket and some socks. Take turns with your child putting the items into the basket and pulling them back out. While hanging the washing put 1-10 pegs on your child’s clothes and let them develop their finger strength by pinching the pegs to remove them. Toddlers of this age love to jump. Encourage this development. Rather than yelling for your child to not jump on your lounge remove the cushions and play a simple game of Leapfrog where they jump from one cushion to the next. For children who love to climb, pile the lounge cushions into a pile and encourage them to be ‘King of the Mountain” and to climb up and over the top. Households with stairs have inbuilt play equipment as children of this age master climbing up and down stairs.
When we speak about physical development the term ‘Gross Motor’ is frequently used. This refers to the involvement of the large muscle groups in the body, mainly the arms and the legs. These are the muscles that busy toddlers naturally exercise.
Different kinds of music will encourage different movements. Dance with your child and see if they can imitate the movements you make. Try balancing and holding positions. Encourage your toddler to jump and clap to the rhythm of the music. Games such as Touch your Toes, Simon Says and the Hokey Pokey not only improve your toddler’s physical development but improve their listening skills for following instructions. Toddlers also love the actions to simple songs and music like the chicken dance or Ring a Ring a Rosie. Combine a love for pretend play with physical activity by pretending to be a racing car, a plane, a racehorse or even creating a pretend carwash while playing with your child.
Try to find balls of different sizes and textures. For children who are wary of balls being thrown, blowing up balloons and tossing them with you in the living room may be a gentler introduction.
Toddlers aged 1-2 years will learn to pick up objects as well as push and pull them without falling. However a toddler of this age has a higher centre of gravity due to a toddler’s legs not being in proportion to the length of their torso. This higher centre of gravity makes them more prone to falls. This is important when assessing whether an activity is suitable for your child.
As children gain control over their large muscle groups their balance will improve. Place a strip of masking tape on the floor and ask your toddler to walk along it without falling off. Encourage your child to play musical statues inside or play statues in the backyard. Your toddler will attempt to balance in different poses while looking at their shadow. Children will enjoy balancing on one leg.